Using the POX SDN controller

April 20, 2015

In this tutorial, we demonstrate basic software-defined networking (SDN) concepts using the POX SDN controller, POX components, and the Mininet network simulator.


We will show how to use the POX SDN controller to update flow tables on the SDN switches in a simulated network so every host on the network can forward packets to another host. We will use the Mininet network simulator to create the network of emulated SDN switches and hosts that are controlled by the POX SDN controller.

About Mininet

Mininet is an open-source network simulator designed to support research and education in the topic of software defined networks. If you are not already familiar with Mininet, you should review the following posts before starting this tutorial:

More information about Mininet is available at the Mininet web site.

About POX

POX provides a framework for communicating with SDN switches using either the OpenFlow or OVSDB protocol. Developers can use POX to create an SDN controller using the Python programming language. It is a popular tool for teaching about and researching software defined networks and network applications programming.1

POX can be immediately used as a basic SDN controller by using the stock components that come bundled with it. This is the scenario we will cover in this tutorial.

Developers may create a more complex SDN controller by creating new POX components. Or, developers may write network applications that address POX’s API. In this tutorial, we only briefly discuss programming for POX.

See the POX documentation to learn more about POX.

POX components

POX components are additional Python programs that can be invoked when POX is started from the command line. These components implement the network functionality in the software defined network. POX comes with some stock components already available.

The POX stock components are documented in the POX Wiki and the code for each component can be found in the ~/pox/pox directory on the Mininet 2.2 VM image.

For example, the forwarding.l2_learning component is in the ~/pox/pox/forwarding directory, as seen below:

$ cd pox/pox
$ ls datapaths info log proto
boot.pyc forwarding messenger topology __init__.pyc misc py.pyc web
core.pyc host_tracker lib openflow samples
$ cd forwarding
$ ls l3_learning.pyc

Programming for POX

The general purpose of all SDN controllers, including POX, is to allow users to write their own applications that use the controller as an intermediary — or abstraction layer — between network applications and the network equipment.

To learn how to write applications for POX, developers may study the stock POX components as examples that show how to write their own components or they may review the POX API documentation to learn how to write networking applications that use the POX Python API.

Installing POX

POX comes already installed on the Mininet 2.2 VM image. In this tutorial, we will use the VM image. See my previous post about setting up the Mininet 2.2 VM.

If you wish to install Mininet and POX on your own Linux system — either hardware or a virtual machine — you may use the Mininet install script, which also installs the POX controller when it installs Mininet.

If you wish to install POX by itself, follow the POX installation instructions from the POX documentation.

Running POX

Start POX by running the program, and specifying the POX components to use. For example, to run POX so it makes the switches it controls emulate the behavior of Ethernet learning switches, run the command:

mininet@mininet-vm:~$ sudo ~/pox/ forwarding.l2_learning

The POX Console

The POX console is the terminal session from which we run the POX controller. After POX starts, it will display log information and may optionally display an interactive Python command line, if POX is started with the py component.

Quit POX

To quit POX, use the control-C key combination in the POX console.

Create a network of switches and hosts

In this tutorial we assume you have already set up a Mininet VM in VirtualBox. Start VirtualBox and then start the VM.

Log into the VM using SSH with X forwarding enabled. From a terminal window on your computer, enter the following command (use PuTTY if you use Microsoft Windows):

brian@t400:~$ ssh -X mininet@

Where is the IP address of the VM’s connection to the host-only network. (The address may be different in your case)

Start MiniEdit

We will use MiniEdit, the Mininet graphical user interface, to set up an emulated network made up of OpenFlow switches and Linux hosts.

To start Mininet, run the following command on a terminal window connected to the Mininet VM:

mininet@mininet-vm:~$ sudo ~/mininet/examples/

Now the Mininet window will appear on your computer’s desktop. (If you see display errors, first check that you have X forwarding enabled on the SSH connection to the Mininet VM)

Build the network and use a remote controller

Build the network consisting of a tree to switches with a central core switch connected to two other switches that are connected to two hosts, each. Connect a controller to all the switches.

Simple tree with three switches and four hosts

Simple tree with three switches and four hosts

Ensure that the MiniEdit preferences are set so that we can use the MiniEdit command line after starting the simulation. Click on the Start CLI box in the MiniEdit preferences window.

Enable CLI in the MiniEdit preferences window

Enable CLI in the MiniEdit preferences window

Set up the controller as a remote controller. Right click on the controller and select Properties from the menu that appears. Then select Remote Controller in the controller properties window.

Configure the controller as a remote controller

Configure the controller as a remote controller

In this tutorial, the POX controller is running on the same virtual machine that all the emulated switches and hosts created by Mininet are running on.

When default settings are used, MiniEdit configures OpenFlow switches to try to communicate with a remote POX controller using the host system’s loopback IP address and the default OpenFlow port number. So, in this tutorial, all switches created by MiniEdit or Mininet are looking for a remote controller with IP address and port number

Start the MiniEdit simulation

First, save the MiniEdit topology for future use.

Then start the simulation by clicking on the Run icon in the MiniEdit tool bar.

The MiniEdit console window will show information about the simulation starting and then will display the Mininet CLI prompt.

At this point, there is no controller connected to the OpenFlow switches so they will no be able to pass any traffic.

Alternative method: Mininet command line

As an alternative to using MiniEdit, the same network can be set up using the Mininet topology commands. I suggest using MiniEdit to create the network topology because MiniEdit provides a visual representation of the network. While MiniEdit is a great tool for creating topologies for the Mininet network simulator, in this tutorial we created a topology that can also be created using standard Mininet commands.

mininet@mininet-vm:~$ sudo mn --topo tree,2,2 --controller remote

Start the POX controller

Before we start the POX SDN controller, we need to determine which components we want to run when we start the controller.

Select the POX components to run

To select the correct stock components, determine what behavior we want the network of switches to exhibit. Then we will select the stock POX component that provides that functionality.

In this tutorial, we will use components that make POX work like a Layer 2 learning switch, and that dump copies of packets received by the controller to the controller’s log file (so we can see what packets the controller sees), and that list controller events to the console log screen in an easy-to-read format. According to the POX documentation, the stock components that do these tasks are: forwarding.l2_pairs, info.packet_dump, samples.pretty_log, and log.level.

See the POX documentation for information about other POX components.

Start POX

To start the POX controller with the selected stock components, enter the following command on a terminal session connected to the Mininet VM.

mininet-vm:~$ sudo ~/pox/ forwarding.l2_pairs \
info.packet_dump samples.pretty_log log.level --DEBUG

In the POX console, see that the log shows the controller starts and connects to the switches previously set up by the Mininet network simulator:

POX 0.2.0 (carp) / Copyright 2011-2013 James McCauley, et al.
INFO:forwarding.l2_pairs:Pair-Learning switch running.
INFO:info.packet_dump:Packet dumper running
[core ] POX 0.2.0 (carp) is up.
[openflow.of_01 ] [00-00-00-00-00-03 1] connected
[openflow.of_01 ] [00-00-00-00-00-02 2] connected
[openflow.of_01 ] [00-00-00-00-00-01 3] connected

Test the controller

The forwarding.l2_pairs component is a very simple application that just matches MAC addresses so it creates a simple scenario to study.

Generate some test traffic between hosts to see how POX builds flows in the network. Run the Mininet pingall command, which runs ping tests between each host in the emulated network. This generates traffic to the controller every time a a switch receives a packet that has a destination MAC address that is not already in its flow table.

Mininet pingall command and results seen in the POX console

Mininet pingall command and results seen in the POX console

You can see in the POX console window the log messages showing what is happening. When the POX controller running the forwarding.l2_pairs component receives a packet from a switch, it tells the switch to flood the ARP packet out its other ports to other switches or hosts. One host eventually responds to the ARP request and then the forwarding.l2_pairs component sends OpenFlow messages to each switch to load the required flows into the switch flow tables.

Checking flow tables

To see the contents of the flow tables on all switches, execute the Mininet command:

mininet> dpctl dump-flows

To check ARP tables on each host, execute the Mininet arp command. For example, to show the ARP table for host h1, enter the following command:

mininet> h1 arp

To clear all flow tables on all switches, enter the Mininet command:

mininet> dpctl del-flows

Next steps

As a next step, we can explore OpenFlow control messages and how flow tables are updated on the switches. In future posts, I will explore more about OpenFlow and Open vSwitch and the tools used to modify flow tables and view OpenFlow messages.

We will also explore how the other stock POX components work individually and in combination with other components or applications. For example, I’d like to see if we can get the Gephi graphing tool working with the misc.gephi_topo component.


We showed how to set up and run the POX SDN controller, how to choose and run stock POX components, and how to test the operation of the controller by using the Mininet SDN network simulator.

  1. See Examples of SDN Controllers from Nick Feamster’s SDN course 

31 responses to Using the POX SDN controller

  1. Awesome post!

  2. awesome , great site to explore ur knowledge ………

  3. Brian,
    Thank you for this post.

    Is there some sort of a web UI that let you work with POX controller instead of using CLI?

  4. Load Balancing in pox

    Pls help me. where do i got load balancing module in pox

  5. thank you Mr. Brain for your reply
    how to measure performance in mininet like throughput, delay, packet loss etc.

  6. Thanks a lot , great job. i am new to SDN and i have a few questions. Q!: Can Mininet be used to make an SDN experiment for a research paper ?. Q2: I read in some research papers that Pox is a controller and Openflow is a controller , how they can be used at the same time if they both are controllers ? the last Q which the most important : How can i modify and extend OpenFlow in Mininet, do know any resource to read as a beginner ? . Again thanks a lot for the great job you have done.

    • To Aiman:

      Yes it can.
      i have view this in legit and currently doing my research in this.
      You have better to straighten up your fact back. The OpenFlow is isn’t controller. The controller is are among Ryu, Trema, Pox, Nox, Floodlight, Griffon, OpenDaylight and many more. The agent that realize the controller itself is OpenFlow. A Protocol who gave in for the controller to work.
      About you can check it out the command in OpenFlow itself in the development log and also in Mininet.

      Normally when you construct a topology in mininet you will using this.

      *******#,protocols=OpenFlow**(this one is determine version) the rest is more up to OpenFlow script to work.

      To Brian:

      i have come across your blog early of 2015. It seem you have help to understand and conduct my experiment. But i have meet in dead end. Do you have script for load balance in using 3 host communicate at least?

      Keep the good work buddy. I like most of your article.


  7. I am really inspired together with your writing skills and also
    with the format oon your weblog. Is thjis a paid theme or did
    you customize it your self? Anyway stay up the excellent high quality writing, it is rare to peer
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  8. Hi Brian…
    when i used the sudo ~/pox/ forwarding.l2_pairs \
    info.packet_dump samples.pretty_log log.level –DEBUG
    so it says that
    Module not found: info.packet_dump

    please help…

    • Hi, What was the error, besides that? normally it didn’t give error like that.

  9. can i change default listening port pox controller from 6633 to 6634 , cause when i use multiple controller, the mininet can’t run the topology.

  10. Hi Brain,
    Thank you for providing this document.
    I am trying to implement fat tree topology in mininet using pox controller by creating topology using mini edit . How Can I configure the flow table in the switches for this fat tree topology ?

  11. Hi Brian,

    I want to write some own algorithm for traffic control for pox controller in mininet. What i have do for it. and also i want to change bandwidth to all link during remote controller. when i changed it i get some problem during run-time.

    Thank You

  12. jitendra bhatia January 16, 2017 at 5:48 am


    Can I create vehicular adhoc network scenario in mininet like ns2? one more que which controller is good for traffic control in network?

  13. Arijit Panigrahy March 10, 2017 at 8:58 am

    Hi Brian,

    I want to attach two different controllers (pox) to the same network at a time. How should i do it.

    For ex, h1———-s1—————s2—————–h2

    s1 is connected to c1 and s2 is connected to c2.

    How should I do it?

  14. hi Brian
    I want set a quality of service module in pox controller and I do not have any information about that.
    please guide me
    thank you

  15. hi Brian
    I want set a quality of service module in pox controller and I do not have any information about it.Please guide me
    thank you

  16. Hi Brian,

    h1 --- s1 ------- s2---- h3
    \ \
    h2 h4

    I have above topology, where h1 and h2 hosts are connected to switch s1 and h3, h4 hosts are connected to switch s2. I want to block host h1 or h2 traffic at ingress port of s2 or at egress ports of s2, so that it can not communicate to h3 and h4. Please guide me how i can modify my l2_learning file in pox to implement these restrictions at both points (ingress or egress).

  17. I need a sample code for DDOs attack in mininet or mininet wifi using RYU controller connected to two acces point and two hosts in wireless mode. Can anyone help me with this?

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